Which was revealed in Makkah
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(By the Qur’an full of reminding.) means, by the Qur’an which includes all that is in it as a reminder and a benefit to people in this life and the Hereafter. Ad-Dahhak said that the Ayah,
(full of reminding.) is like the Ayah,
(Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book in which there is Dhikrukum) (21:10). i.e., your reminder. This was also the view of Qatadah and of Ibn Jarir. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Isma`il bin Abi Khalid, Ibn `Uyaynah, Abu Husayn, Abu Salih and As-Suddi said:
(full of reminding.) “Full of honor,” i.e., of high standing. There is no contradiction between the two views, because it is a noble Book which includes reminders and leaves no excuse and brings warnings. The reason for this oath is to be found in the Ayah:
(Not one of them but denied the Messengers; therefore My torment was justified.) (38:14). Qatadah said, “The reason for it is to be found in the Ayah:
(Nay, those who disbelieve are in false pride and opposition).” This was the view favored by Ibn Jarir.
(Nay, those who disbelieve are in false pride and opposition.) means, in this Qur’an there is a reminder for those who will be reminded and a lesson for those who will learn a lesson, but the disbelievers will not benefit from it because they
(are in false pride) meaning, arrogance and tribalism,
(and opposition.) means, they are stubbornly opposed to it and go against it. Then Allah scares them with news of how the nations who came before them were destroyed because of their opposition to the Messengers and their disbelief in the Scriptures that were revealed from heaven. Allah says:
(How many a generation have We destroyed before them!) meaning, disbelieving nations.
(And they cried out) means, when the punishment came to them, they called for help and cried out to Allah, but that did not save them at all. This is like the Ayat:
(Then, when they perceived (saw) Our torment, behold, they (tried to) flee from it. Flee not, but return to that wherein you lived a luxurious life, and to your homes, in order that you may be questioned.) (21:12-13). Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that At-Tamimi said, “I asked Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, about the Ayah:
(And they cried out when there was no longer time for escape.) He said that it was not the time for them to call or flee or escape. Muhammad bin Ka`b said, concerning the Ayah:
(And they cried out when there was no longer time for escape.) “They called for Tawhid when their lives were over, and they resorted to repentance when their lives were over.” Qatadah said, “When they saw the punishment, they wanted to repent when there was no longer time to call out.” Mujahid said:
(And they cried out when there was no longer time for escape.) “It was not the time to flee or escape.” Allah says:
(when there was no longer time for escape.) meaning, there was no time to escape or run away; and Allah knows best.