(Because of their sins) It also has been recited as; (خَطَايَاهُمْ) (their errors.)
(they were drowned,) meaning, for their numerous sins, rebellion, persistence in disbelief and opposition to their Messengers.
(they were drowned, then were made to enter the Fire.) meaning, they will be carried from the flood of the seas to the heat of the Fire.
(And they found none to help them instead of Allah.) meaning, they will have no helper, assistant, or savior who can rescue them from the punishment of Allah. This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(This day there is no savior from the decree of Allah except him on whom He has mercy.) (11:43)
(And Nuh said: “My Lord! Leave not one of the disbelievers on the earth Dayyar!”) meaning, do not leave a single one of them on the face of the earth, not even a lone individual. This is a method of speaking that gives emphasis to the negation. Ad-Dahhak said, “Dayyar means one.” As-Suddi said, “Dayyar is the one who stays in the home.” So Allah answered his supplication and He destroyed all of those on the face of the earth who were disbelievers. He (Allah) even destroyed Nuh’s (biological) son from his own loins, who separated himself from his father (Nuh). He (Nuh’s son) said,
(I will betake myself to some mountain, it will save me from the water. Nuh said: “This day there is no savior from the decree of Allah except him on whom He has mercy.” And waves came in between them, so he (the son) was among the drowned.) (11:43) Allah saved the people of the ship who believed with Nuh, and they were those whom Allah commanded Nuh to carry with him. Allah said,
(If You leave them, they will mislead Your servants,) meaning, `if You leave a single one of them they will lead your servants astray.’ This refers to those whom He will create after them.
(and they will beget none but wicked disbelievers.) meaning, wicked in their deeds and disbelieving in their hearts. He (Nuh) said this due to what he knew about them since he remained among them for nine hundred and fifty years. Then he said,
(My Lord! Forgive me, and my parents, and him who enters my home as a believer,) Ad-Dahhak said, “This means, my Masjid.” However, there is no harm in understanding the Ayah according to its apparent meaning, which would be that he (Nuh) supplicated for every person who entered his house who was a believer. Then he said,
(and all the believing men and women.) He supplicated for all of the believing men and women, and that includes those of them who were living and those of them who were dead. For this reason, it is recommended to supplicate like this, in following the example of Nuh, and that which has been reported in the narrations and well-known, legislated supplications. Then, he said,
(And to the wrongdoers, grant You no increase but destruction!) As-Suddi said, “But destruction.” Mujahid said, “But loss.” This means in both this life and in the Hereafter.This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Nuh. And all praise and thanks are due to Allah.