The Book of Musa and the Leadership of the Children of Israel

Allah tells us that He gave the Book — the Tawrah — to His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him.

ููŽู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽูƒูู† ููู‰ ู…ูุฑู’ูŠูŽุฉู ู…ู‘ูู† ู„ู‘ูู‚ูŽุขุฆูู‡ู

(So, be not you in doubt of meeting him.) Qatadah said, “This refers to the Night of Isra’,” then he narrated that Abu Al-`Aliyah Ar-Riyahi said, “The cousin of your Prophet, meaning Ibn `Abbas, told me that the Messenger of Allah said:

ยซุฃูุฑููŠุชู ู„ูŽูŠู’ู„ูŽุฉูŽ ุฃูุณู’ุฑููŠูŽ ุจููŠ ู…ููˆุณู‰ ุจู’ู†ูŽ ุนูู…ู’ุฑูŽุงู†ูŽ ุฑูŽุฌูู„ู‹ุง ุขุฏูŽู…ูŽ ุทููˆูŽุงู„ู‹ุง ุฌูŽุนู’ุฏู‹ุง ูƒูŽุฃูŽู†ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู…ูู†ู’ ุฑูุฌูŽุงู„ู ุดูŽู†ููˆุกูŽุฉูŽุŒ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุฃูŽูŠู’ุชู ุนููŠุณู‰ ุฑูŽุฌูู„ู‹ุง ู…ูŽุฑู’ุจููˆุนูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฎูŽู„ู’ู‚ู ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ุญูู…ู’ุฑูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุจูŽูŠูŽุงุถูุŒ ุณูŽุจู’ุท ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุฃู’ุณูุŒ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุฃูŽูŠู’ุชู ู…ูŽุงู„ููƒู‹ุง ุฎูŽุงุฒูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุฑู ูˆูŽุงู„ุฏู‘ูŽุฌู‘ูŽุงู„ยป

(On the night of Isra’, I saw Musa bin `Imran, a tall, brown-skinned man with curly hair, looking like the men of Shanu’ah; and I saw `Isa, a man of medium stature and ruddy white skin, and with lank hair. And I saw Malik the Keeper of Hell, and the Dajjal.) Among the signs which Allah showed him were:

ููŽู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽูƒูู† ููู‰ ู…ูุฑู’ูŠูŽุฉู ู…ู‘ูู† ู„ู‘ูู‚ูŽุขุฆูู‡ู

(So, be not you in doubt of meeting him.) i.e., he saw Musa and met with him on the Night of Isra’.”


(And We made it) means, `the Book which We gave to him, ‘

ู‡ูุฏู‹ู‰ ู„ู‘ูุจูŽู†ูู‰ ุฅูุณู’ุฑูŽุกููŠู„ูŽ

(a guide to the Children of Israel.) This is similar to what Allah says in Surat Al-Isra’:

ูˆูŽุกูŽุงุชูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุข ู…ููˆุณูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ูƒูุชูŽู€ุจูŽ ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุงู‡ู ู‡ูุฏู‹ู‰ ู„ู‘ูุจูŽู†ูู‰ ุฅูุณู’ุฑูŽุกููŠู„ูŽ ุฃูŽู„ุงู‘ูŽ ุชูŽุชู‘ูŽุฎูุฐููˆุงู’ ู…ูู† ุฏููˆู†ูู‰ ูˆูŽูƒููŠู„ุงู‹

(And We gave Musa the Scripture and made it a guidance for the Children of Israel (saying): “Take none other than Me as Trustee.”) (17:2)

ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽุฆูู…ู‘ูŽุฉู‹ ูŠูŽู‡ู’ุฏููˆู†ูŽ ุจูุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑูู†ูŽุง ู„ูŽู…ู‘ูŽุง ุตูŽุจูŽุฑููˆุงู’ ูˆูŽูƒูŽุงู†ููˆุงู’ ุจูู€ูŽุงูŠูŽู€ุชูู†ูŽุง ูŠููˆู‚ูู†ููˆู†ูŽ

(And We made from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayat.) means, because they were patient in adhering to the commands of Allah and avoiding what He prohibited, and they believed in His Messengers and followed what they brought, there were among them leaders who guided others to the truth by the command of Allah, calling for goodness, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong. Then when they changed the Words of Allah, twisting and distorting them, they lost that position and their hearts became hard. They change the words from their places, so they do no righteous deeds and have no correct beliefs. Allah says:

ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽุฆูู…ู‘ูŽุฉู‹ ูŠูŽู‡ู’ุฏููˆู†ูŽ ุจูุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑูู†ูŽุง ู„ูŽู…ู‘ูŽุง ุตูŽุจูŽุฑููˆุงู’

(And We made from among them (Children of Israel), leaders, giving guidance under Our command, when they were patient) Qatadah and Sufyan said: “When they patiently shunned the temptations of this world.” This was also the view of Al-Hasan bin Salih. Sufyan said, “This is how these people were. A man cannot be an example to be followed unless he shuns the temptation of this world.” Allah says:

ูˆูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุกูŽุงุชูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุง ุจูŽู†ูู‰ ุฅูุณู’ุฑูŽุกููŠู„ูŽ ุงู„ู’ูƒูุชูŽู€ุจูŽ ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุญููƒู’ู…ูŽ ูˆูŽุงู„ู†ู‘ูุจููˆู‘ูŽุฉูŽ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุฒูŽู‚ู’ู†ูŽู€ู‡ูู…ู’ ู…ู‘ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ุทู‘ูŽูŠู‘ูุจูŽู€ุชู ูˆูŽููŽุถู‘ูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽู€ู‡ูู…ู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽู€ู„ูŽู…ูŠู†ูŽ ูˆูŽุกุงุชูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽู€ู‡ูู… ุจูŽูŠู‘ูู†ูŽู€ุชู ู…ู‘ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒู…ู’ุฑู

(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations. And We gave them clear proofs in matters.) (45:16-17). And He says here:

ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุฑูŽุจู‘ูŽูƒูŽ ู‡ููˆูŽ ูŠูŽูู’ุตูู„ู ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽูŠูŽู€ู…ูŽุฉู ูููŠู…ูŽุง ูƒูŽุงู†ููˆุงู’ ูููŠู‡ู ูŠูŽุฎู’ุชูŽู„ููููˆู†ูŽ

(Verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection, concerning that wherein they used to differ.) meaning, with regard to beliefs and actions.

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