Which was revealed in Madina

The Virtues of Surat As-Saff

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Salam said, “We asked, `Who among us should go to the Messenger and ask him about the dearest actions to Allah’ None among us volunteered. The Messenger sent a man to us and that man gathered us and recited this Surah, Surat As-Saff, in its entirety.”‘

ุจูุณู’ู…ู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุญู’ู…ูŽู€ู†ู ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุญููŠู…ู

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Chastising Those Who say what They do not do

We mentioned in many a places before the meaning of Allah’s statement,

ุณูŽุจู‘ูŽุญูŽ ู„ูู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู…ูŽุง ููู‰ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽู€ูˆูŽุชู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ููู‰ ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฑู’ุถู ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุฒููŠุฒู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽูƒููŠู…ู

(Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) Therefore, we do not need to repeat its meaning here. Allah’s statement,

ูŠุฃูŽูŠู‘ูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุกูŽุงู…ูŽู†ููˆุงู’ ู„ูู…ูŽ ุชูŽู‚ููˆู„ููˆู†ูŽ ู…ูŽุง ู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽูู’ุนูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ

(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) This refutes those who neglect to fulfill their promises. This honorable Ayah supports the view that several scholars of the Salaf held, that it is necessary to fulfill the promise, regardless of whether the promise includes some type of wealth for the person receiving the promise or otherwise. They also argue from the Sunnah, with the Hadith recorded in the Two Sahihs in which Allah’s Messenger said,

ยซุขูŠูŽุฉู ุงู„ู’ู…ูู†ูŽุงููู‚ู ุซูŽู„ูŽุงุซูŒ: ุฅูุฐูŽุง ูˆูŽุนูŽุฏูŽ ุฃูŽุฎู’ู„ูŽููŽุŒ ูˆูŽุฅูุฐูŽุง ุญูŽุฏู‘ูŽุซูŽ ูƒูŽุฐูŽุจูŽุŒ ูˆูŽุฅูุฐูŽุง ุงุคู’ุชูู…ูู†ูŽ ุฎูŽุงู†ยป

(There are three signs for a hypocrite: when he promises, he breaks his promise; when speaks, he lies; and when he is entrusted, he betrays.) And in another Hadith in the Sahih,

ยซุฃูŽุฑู’ุจูŽุนูŒ ู…ูŽู†ู’ ูƒูู†ู‘ูŽ ูููŠู‡ู ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ู…ูู†ูŽุงููู‚ู‹ุง ุฎูŽุงู„ูุตู‹ุงุŒูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ูููŠู‡ู ูˆูŽุงุญูุฏูŽุฉูŒ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูู†ู‘ูŽ ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ูููŠู‡ู ุฎูŽุตู’ู„ูŽุฉูŒ ู…ูู†ู’ ู†ูููŽุงู‚ู ุญูŽุชู’ู‰ ูŠูŽุฏูŽุนูŽู‡ูŽุงยป

(There are four characteristics which if one has all of them, he is the pure hypocrite, and if anyone has any of them, he has a characteristic of hypocrisy, until he abandons it.) So he mentioned breaking the promise among these four characteristics. We mentioned the meaning of these two Hadiths in the beginning of the explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari, and to Allah is the praise and the thanks. Therefore Allah implied this meaning, when He continued His admonishment by saying,

ูƒูŽุจูุฑูŽ ู…ูŽู‚ู’ุชุงู‹ ุนูู†ุฏูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุฃูŽู† ุชูŽู‚ููˆู„ููˆุงู’ ู…ูŽุง ู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽูู’ุนูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ

(Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.) Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amir bin Rabi`ah said, “Allah’s Messenger came to us while I was a young boy, and I went out to play. My mother said, `O `Abdullah! Come, I want to give you something.’ Allah’s Messenger said to her,

ยซูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุฃูŽุฑูŽุฏู’ุชู ุฃูŽู†ู’ ุชูุนู’ุทููŠูŽู‡ูุŸยป

(What did you want to give him) She said, `Dates.’ He said,

ยซุฃูŽู…ูŽุง ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽูƒู ู„ูŽูˆู’ ู„ูŽู…ู’ ุชูŽูู’ุนูŽู„ููŠ ูƒูุชูุจูŽุชู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒู ูƒูŽุฐู’ุจูŽุฉยป

(If you had not given them to him, it would have been written as a lie in your record.)” Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “The faithful believers said, `If we only knew the dearest good actions to Allah, we would perform them.’ Thus, Allah told them about the dearest actions to Him,saying,

ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽ ูŠูุญูุจู‘ู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูŠูู‚ูŽู€ุชูู„ููˆู†ูŽ ููู‰ ุณูŽุจููŠู„ูู‡ู ุตูŽูู‘ุงู‹

(Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows) Allah stated what He likes, and they were tested on the day of Uhud. However, they retreated and fled, leaving the Prophet behind. It was about their case that Allah revealed this Ayah:

ูŠุฃูŽูŠู‘ูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุกูŽุงู…ูŽู†ููˆุงู’ ู„ูู…ูŽ ุชูŽู‚ููˆู„ููˆู†ูŽ ู…ูŽุง ู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽูู’ุนูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ

(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) Allah says here, `The dearest of you to Me, is he who fights in My cause.”‘ Some said that it was revealed about the gravity of fighting in battle, when one says that he fought and endured the battle, even though he did not do so. Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that this Ayah was sent down to admonish some people who used to say that they killed, fought, stabbed, and did such and such during battle, even though they did not do any of it. Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah’s statement,

ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽ ูŠูุญูุจู‘ู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูŠูู‚ูŽู€ุชูู„ููˆู†ูŽ ููู‰ ุณูŽุจููŠู„ูู‡ู ุตูŽูู‘ุงู‹

(Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows (ranks)) “Before Allah’s Messenger began the battle against the enemy, he liked to line up his forces in rows; in this Surah, Allah teaches the believers to do the same.” He also said that Allah’s statement,

ูƒูŽุฃูŽู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูู… ุจูู†ู’ูŠูŽู€ู†ูŒ ู…ู‘ูŽุฑู’ุตููˆุตูŒ

(as if they were a solid structure.) means, its parts are firmly connected to each other; in rows for battle. Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “Firmly connected to each other.” Ibn `Abbas commented on the meaning of the Ayah,

ูƒูŽุฃูŽู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูู… ุจูู†ู’ูŠูŽู€ู†ูŒ ู…ู‘ูŽุฑู’ุตููˆุตูŒ

(as if they were a solid structure.) by saying, “They are like a firm structure that does not move, because its parts are cemented to each other.”

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