The Etiquette of addressing the Prophet

Ad-Dahhak said, reporting from Ibn `Abbas: “They used to say, `O Muhammad,’ or `O Abu Al-Qasim,’ but Allah forbade them to do that, as a sign of respect towards His Prophet , and told them to say, `O Prophet of Allah,’ `O Messenger of Allah.”‘ This was also the view of Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr. Qatadah said: “Allah commanded that His Prophet should be treated with respect and honor, and that he should be a leader.” Muqatil said concerning the Ayah:

ู„ุงู‘ูŽ ุชูŽุฌู’ุนูŽู„ููˆุงู’ ุฏูุนูŽุขุกูŽ ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุณููˆู„ู ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ูƒูŽุฏูุนูŽุขุกู ุจูŽุนู’ุถููƒูู…ู’ ุจูŽุนู’ุถุงู‹

(Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.) “When you address him, do not say, `O Muhammad,’ or `O son of `Abdullah’; rather honor him and say, `O Prophet of Allah,’ or, `O Messenger of Allah.’

ู„ุงู‘ูŽ ุชูŽุฌู’ุนูŽู„ููˆุงู’ ุฏูุนูŽุขุกูŽ ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุณููˆู„ู ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ูƒูŽุฏูุนูŽุขุกู ุจูŽุนู’ุถููƒูู…ู’ ุจูŽุนู’ุถุงู‹

(Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.) A second view concerning the meaning of the Ayah is that it means `do not think that if he prays against you it is like when anyone else prays against you, because his prayers will be answered; so beware lest he prays against you and you will be doomed.’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this from Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi. And Allah knows best.

ู‚ูŽุฏู’ ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูŠูŽุชูŽุณูŽู„ู‘ูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ ู…ูู†ูƒูู…ู’ ู„ููˆูŽุงุฐุงู‹

(Allah knows those of you who slip away under shelter.) Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “This refers to the hypocrites who used to find it too difficult to listen to the Khutbah on Fridays, so they would hide behind some of the Companions of Muhammad and sneak out of the Masjid. It was not proper for a man to leave on Fridays once the Khutbah began, unless he had permission from the Prophet . If one of them wanted to leave, he would make a gesture to the Prophet with his finger, and the Prophet would give permission without the man speaking. This is because if the Prophet was giving the Khutbah and a man spoke, it would invalidate his Friday prayer.” As-Suddi said, “If they were with him for a congregational prayer, they would hide behind one another so that he could not see them.”

The Prohibition of going against the Messenger’s Commandment

ููŽู„ู’ูŠูŽุญู’ุฐูŽุฑู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูŠูุฎูŽู€ู„ููููˆู†ูŽ ุนูŽู†ู’ ุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑูู‡ู

(And let those beware who oppose the Messenger’s commandment) This means going against the commandment of the Prophet , which is his way, methodology and Sunnah. All words and deeds will be measured against his words and deeds; those that are in accordance with his words and deeds will be accepted, and whatever does not match up will be rejected, no matter who the person is who said and did them. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs and elsewhere that the Messenger of Allah said:

ยซู…ูŽู†ู’ ุนูŽู…ูู„ูŽ ุนูŽู…ูŽู„ู‹ุง ู„ูŽูŠู’ุณูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑูู†ูŽุง ููŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุฑูŽุฏู‘ูŒยป

(Whoever does a deed that is not in accordance with this matter of ours will have it rejected.) meaning, let those beware who go against the Shari`ah of the Messenger , in secret and in the open,

ุฃูŽู† ุชูุตููŠุจูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ููุชู’ู†ูŽุฉูŒ

(lest some Fitnah should befall them), i.e., lest some disbelief or hypocrisy or innovation enter their hearts.

ุฃูŽูˆู’ ูŠูุตููŠุจูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุนูŽุฐูŽุงุจูŒ ุฃูŽู„ููŠู…ูŒ

(or a painful torment be inflicted on them.) means in this world afflicting them with capital punishment, or by law of prescribed punishment, or by confinement in prison, or so on. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

ยซู…ูŽุซูŽู„ููŠ ูˆูŽู…ูŽุซูŽู„ููƒูู…ู’ ูƒูŽู…ูŽุซูŽู„ู ุฑูŽุฌูู„ู ุงุณู’ุชูŽูˆู’ู‚ูŽุฏูŽ ู†ูŽุงุฑู‹ุง ููŽู„ูŽู…ู‘ูŽุง ุฃูŽุถูŽุงุกูŽุชู’ ู…ูŽุง ุญูŽูˆู’ู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ุฌูŽุนูŽู„ูŽ ุงู„ู’ููŽุฑูŽุงุดู ูˆูŽู‡ูŽุฐูู‡ู ุงู„ุฏู‘ูŽูˆูŽุงุจู‘ู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽุงุฆููŠ ูŠูŽู‚ูŽุนู’ู†ูŽ ูููŠ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุฑู ูŠูŽู‚ูŽุนู’ู†ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุงุŒ ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ูŽ ูŠูŽุญู’ุฌูุฒูู‡ูู†ู‘ูŽ ูˆูŽูŠูŽุบู’ู„ูุจู’ู†ูŽู‡ู ููŽูŠูŽู‚ู’ุชูŽุญูู…ู’ู†ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ: ููŽุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ู…ูŽุซูŽู„ููŠ ูˆูŽู…ูŽุซูŽู„ููƒูู…ู’ุŒ ุฃูŽู†ูŽุง ุขุฎูุฐูŒ ุจูุญูุฌูŽุฒููƒูู…ู’ ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุฑู ู‡ูŽู„ูู…ู‘ูŽ ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุฑูุŒ ููŽุชูŽุบู’ู„ูุจููˆู†ููŠ ูˆูŽุชูŽู‚ู’ุชูŽุญูู…ููˆู†ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุงยป

(The parable of me and you is as the example of a man who kindled a fire and when it illuminated all around him, moths and other creatures started falling into the fire, and he was trying to stop them but they overwhelmed him and still kept falling in. This is the parable of me and you. I am trying to restrain you and keep you away from the fire, but you overwhelm me and fall in.) This was also narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

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