Prohibition of giving in to the Pressure of the Disbelievers and Their Suggestions, and that They like to meet in the Middle of the Path
Allah says, `just as We have favored you and given you the upright legislation and great (standard of) character,’
(So, do not obey the deniers. They wish that you should compromise with them, so they (too) would compromise with you.) Ibn `Abbas said, “That you would permit them (their idolatry) and they also would permit you (to practice your religion).” Mujahid said,
(They wish that you should compromise with them, so they (too) would compromise with you.) “This means that you should be quiet about their gods and abandon the truth that you are upon.” Then Allah says,
(And do not obey every Hallaf (one who swears much) Mahin (liar or worthless person).) This is because the liar, due to his weakness and his disgracefulness, only seeks protection in his false oaths which he boldly swears to while using Allah’s Names, and he uses them (false oaths) all the time and out of place (i.e., unnecessarily). Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Mahin means the liar.” Then Allah says,
(A Hammaz, ) Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah both said, “This is slander.”
(going about with Namim,) This refers to the one who goes around among people instigating discord between them and carrying tales in order to corrupt relations between people when they are good and pleasant. It is confirmed in the Two Sahihs that Mujahid reported from Tawus that Ibn `Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah once passed by two graves and he said,
(Verily, these two are being punished, and they are not being punished for something major. One of them was not careful about protecting himself from urine (when relieving himself). The other one used to spread Namimah.)” This Hadith has been recorded by the Group in their books through routes of transmission that are all on the authority of Mujahid. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(The slanderer will not enter into Paradise.)” This Hadith has been reported by the Group except for Ibn Majah. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Hinderer of good, transgressor, sinful,) it means, he refuses to give and withholds that which he has of good.
(transgressor,) this means, in attaining that which Allah has made permissible for him, he exceeds the legislated bounds.
(sinful,) meaning, he delves into the forbidden things. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(`Utul, and moreover Zanim.) `Utul means one who is cruel, harsh, strong, greedy and stingy. Imam Ahmad recorded from Al-Harithah bin Wahb that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Shall I inform you of the people of Paradise (They will be) every weak and oppressed person. When he swears by Allah, he fulfills his oath. Shall I inform you of the people of the Fire Every `Utul (cruel person), Jawwaz and arrogant person.) Al-Waki` said, “It (`Utul) is every Jawwaz, Ja`zari and arrogant person.” Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this in their Two Sahihs, as well as the rest of the Group, except for Abu Dawud. All of its routes of transmission are by way of Sufyan Ath-Thawri and Shu`bah who both reported it from Sa`id bin Khalid. The scholars of Arabic language have said that Ja`zari means rude and harsh, while Jawwaz means greedy and stingy. Concerning the word Zanim, Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said concerning the Ayah,
(`Utul (cruel), and moreover Zanim.) “A man from the Quraysh who stands out among them like the sheep that has had a piece of its ear cut off.” The meaning of this is that he is famous for his evil just as a sheep that has a piece of its ear cut off stands out among its sister sheep. In the Arabic language the Zanim is a person who is adopted among a group of people (i.e., he is not truly of them). Ibn Jarir and others among the Imams have said this. Concerning Allah’s statement,
((He was so) because he had wealth and children. When Our Ayat are recited to him, he says: “Tales of the men of old!”) Allah is saying, `this is how he responds to the favors that Allah has bestowed upon him of wealth and children, by disbelieving in Allah’s Ayat and turning away from them while claiming that they are a lie that has been taken from the tales of the ancients.’ This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(Leave Me alone (to deal) with whom I created lonely (without any wealth and children etc.). And then granted him resources in abundance. And children to be by his side. And made life smooth and comfortable for him. After all that he desires that I should give more. Nay! Verily, he has been opposing Our Ayat. I shall oblige him to face a severe torment! Verily, he thought and plotted. So let him be cursed, how he plotted! And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted! Then he thought. Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way. Then he turned back, and was proud. Then he said: “This is nothing but magic from that of old, this is nothing but the word of a human being!” I will cast him into Hellfire. And what will make you know what Hellfire is It spares not (any sinner), nor does it leave (anything unburned)! Burning and blackening the skins! Over it are nineteen (angels as keepers of Hell).) 74:11-30 Then Allah said here,
(We shall brand him on the snout!) Ibn Jarir said, “We will make his matter clear and evident so that they will know him and he will not be hidden from them, just as the branding mark on the snouts (of animals).” Others have said,
(We shall brand him) This is the mark of the people of the Hell-fire; meaning, `We will blacken his face on the Day of Judgement,’ and the face has been referred to here as snout.