Which was revealed in Al-Madina

The Virtues of Surat Al-Ma’idah; When It was Revealed

At-Tirmidhi recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, “The last Surahs to be revealed were Surat Al-Ma’idah and Surat Al-Fath (chapter 48).” At-Tirmidhi commented, “This Hadith is Hasan, Gharib.” and it was also reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the last Surah to be revealed was,

ุฅูุฐูŽุง ุฌูŽุขุกูŽ ู†ูŽุตู’ุฑู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ููŽุชู’ุญู

(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest,) Al-Hakim collected a narration similar to that of At-Tirmidhi in his Mustadrak, and he said, “It is Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Shaykhs and they did not record it.” Al-Hakim narrated that Jubayr bin Nufayr said, “I performed Hajj once and visited `A’ishah and she said to me, `O Jubayr! Do you read (or memorize) Al-Ma’idah ‘ I answered `Yes.’ She said, `It was the last Surah to be revealed. Therefore, whatever permissible matters you find in it, then consider (treat) them permissible. And whatever impermissible matters you find in it, then consider (treat) them impermissible.”‘ Al-Hakim said, “It is Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Shaykhs and they did not record it. ” Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Mahdi related that Mu`awiyah bin Salih added this statement in the last Hadith, “I (Jubayr) also asked `A’ishah about the Messenger of Allah’s conduct and she answered by saying, `The Qur’an.”‘ An-Nasa’i also recorded it.

ุจูุณู’ู…ู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุญู’ู…ูŽู€ู†ู ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุญููŠู…ู

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that a man came to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and said to him, “Advise me.” He said, “When you hear Allah’s statement,

ูŠูŽู€ุฃูŽูŠู‘ูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุกูŽุงู…ูŽู†ููˆุงู’

(O you who believe!) then pay full attention, for it is a righteous matter that He is ordaining or an evil thing that He is forbidding.” Khaythamah said, “Everything in the Qur’an that reads,

ูŠูŽู€ุฃูŽูŠู‘ูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุกูŽุงู…ูŽู†ููˆุงู’

(O you who believe!) reads in the Tawrah, `O you who are in need.”‘ Allah said,

ุฃูŽูˆู’ูููˆุงู’ ุจูุงู„ู’ุนูู‚ููˆุฏู

(Fulfill (your) obligations.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others said that `obligations’ here means treaties. Ibn Jarir mentioned that there is a consensus for this view. Ibn Jarir also said that it means treaties, such as the alliances that they used to conduct. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented:

ูŠูŽู€ุฃูŽูŠู‘ูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุกูŽุงู…ูŽู†ููˆุงู’ ุฃูŽูˆู’ูููˆุงู’ ุจูุงู„ู’ุนูู‚ููˆุฏู

(O you who believe! Fulfill (your) obligations.) “Refers to the covenants, meaning, what Allah permitted, prohibited, ordained and set limits for in the Qur’an. Therefore, do not commit treachery or break the covenants. Allah emphasized this command when He said,

ูˆูŽุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูŠูŽู†ู‚ูุถููˆู†ูŽ ุนูŽู‡ู’ุฏูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู…ูู† ุจูŽุนู’ุฏู ู…ููŠุซูŽู€ู‚ูู‡ู ูˆูŽูŠูŽู‚ู’ุทูŽุนููˆู†ูŽ ู…ูŽุข ุฃูŽู…ูŽุฑูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุจูู‡ู ุฃูŽู† ูŠููˆุตูŽู„ูŽ

(And those who break the covenant of Allah, after its ratification, and sever that which Allah has commanded to be joined,) until,

ุณููˆุกู ุงู„ุฏู‘ูŽุงุฑู

(unhappy (evil) home (i.e. Hell).)” Ad-Dahhak said that,

ุฃูŽูˆู’ูููˆุงู’ ุจูุงู„ู’ุนูู‚ููˆุฏู

(Fulfill your obligations.) “Refers to what Allah has permitted and what He has prohibited. Allah has taken the covenant from those who proclaim their faith in the Prophet and the Book to fulfill the obligations that He has ordered for them in the permissible and the impermissible.”

Explaining the Lawful and the Unlawful Beasts

Allah said,

ุฃูุญูู„ู‘ูŽุชู’ ู„ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ุจูŽู‡ููŠู…ูŽุฉู ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒู†ู’ุนูŽุงู…ู

(Lawful to you (for food) are all the beasts of cattle) camels, cows and sheep, as Al-Hasan, Qatadah and several others stated. Ibn Jarir said that this Tafsir conforms to the meaning of (`beasts of cattle’) that the Arabs had. We should mention that Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas and others relied on this Ayah as evidence to allow eating the meat of the fetus if it is found dead in the belly of its slaughtered mother. There is a Hadith to the same effect collected in the Sunan of Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah and narrated by Abu Sa`id who said, “We asked, `O Messenger of Allah! When we slaughter a camel, cow or sheep, we sometimes find a fetus in its belly, should we discard it or eat its meat’ He said,

ยซูƒูู„ููˆู‡ู ุฅูู†ู’ ุดูุฆู’ุชูู…ู’ ููŽุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุฐูŽูƒูŽุงุชูŽู‡ู ุฐูŽูƒูŽุงุฉู ุฃูู…ู‘ูู‡ยป

(Eat it if you want, because its slaughter was fulfilled when its mother was slaughtered.)” At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan.” Abu Dawud recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

ยซุฐูŽูƒูŽุงุฉู ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ููŠู†ู ุฐูŽูƒูŽุงุฉู ุฃูู…ู‘ูู‡ยป

(Proper slaughter of the fetus is fulfilled with the slaughter of its mother.) Only Abu Dawud collected this narration. Allah’s statement,

ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ู…ูŽุง ูŠูุชู’ู„ูŽู‰ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒูู…ู’

(except that which will be announced to you (herein), ) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that it refers to, “The flesh of dead animals, blood and the meat of swine.” Qatadah said, “The meat of dead animals and animals slaughtered without Allah’s Name being pronounced at the time of slaughtering.” It appears, and Allah knows best, that the Ayah refers to Allah’s other statement,

ุญูุฑู‘ูู…ูŽุชู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒูู…ู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูŠู’ุชูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฏู‘ูŽู…ู ูˆูŽู„ูŽุญู’ู…ู ุงู„ู’ุฎูู†ู’ุฒููŠุฑู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุข ุฃูู‡ูู„ู‘ูŽ ู„ูุบูŽูŠู’ุฑู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุจูู‡ู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ู…ูู†ู’ุฎูŽู†ูู‚ูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูˆู’ู‚ููˆุฐูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ู…ูุชูŽุฑูŽุฏู‘ููŠูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุทููŠุญูŽุฉู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุข ุฃูŽูƒูŽู„ูŽ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽุจูุนู

(Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytah (the dead animals), blood, the flesh of swine, and what has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns – and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal.)5:3, for although the animals mentioned in this Ayah are types of permissible cattle (except for swine), they become impermissible under the circumstances that the Ayah 5:3 specifies. This is why Allah said afterwards,

ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ู…ูŽุง ุฐูŽูƒู‘ูŽูŠู’ุชูู…ู’ ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุฐูุจูุญูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูุตูุจู

(Unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub (stone altars)) as the latter type is not permissible, because it can no longer be slaughtered properly. Hence, Allah’s statement,

ุฃูุญูู„ู‘ูŽุชู’ ู„ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ุจูŽู‡ููŠู…ูŽุฉู ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒู†ู’ุนูŽุงู…ู ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ู…ูŽุง ูŠูุชู’ู„ูŽู‰ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒูู…ู’

(Lawful to you are all the beasts of cattle except that which will be announced to you, ) means, except the specific circumstances that prohibit some of these which will be announced to you. Allah said,

ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑูŽ ู…ูุญูู„ู‘ูู‰ ุงู„ุตู‘ูŽูŠู’ุฏู ูˆูŽุฃูŽู†ุชูู…ู’ ุญูุฑูู…ูŒ

(game (also) being unlawful when you assume Ihram.) Some scholars said that the general meaning of `cattle’ includes domesticated cattle, such as camels, cows and sheep, and wild cattle, such as gazzelle, wild cattle and wild donkeys. Allah made the exceptions mentioned above (dead animals blood, flesh of swine etc.), and prohibited hunting wild beasts while in the state of Ihram. It was also reported that the meaning here is, “We have allowed for you all types of cattle in all circumstances, except what We excluded herewith for the one hunting game while in the state of Ihram.” Allah said,

ููŽู…ูŽู†ู ุงุถู’ุทูุฑู‘ูŽ ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑูŽ ุจูŽุงุบู ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุนูŽุงุฏู ููŽุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽ ุบูŽูููˆุฑูŒ ุฑู‘ูŽุญููŠู…ูŒ

(But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, and not transgressing, then, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) This Ayah means, “We allowed eating the meat of dead animals, when one is forced by necessity, under the condition that one is not transgressing the limits or overstepping them.” Here, Allah states, “Just as We allowed the meat of cattle in all conditions and circumstances, then do not hunt game when in the state of Ihram, for this is the decision of Allah, Who is the Most Wise in all that He commands and forbids.” So Allah said;

ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽ ูŠูŽุญู’ูƒูู…ู ู…ูŽุง ูŠูุฑููŠุฏู

(Verily, Allah commands that which He wills.)

The Necessity of Observing the Sanctity of the Sacred Area and the Sacred Months

Allah continues,

ูŠูŽู€ุฃูŽูŠู‘ูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ุกูŽุงู…ูŽู†ููˆุงู’ ู„ุงูŽ ุชูุญูู„ู‘ููˆุงู’ ุดูŽุนูŽุขุฆูุฑูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู

(O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of Sha’a’ir Allah (the symbols of Allah),) Ibn `Abbas said, “Sha`a’ir Allah means the rituals of Hajj.” Mujahid said, “As-Safa and Al-Marwah, and the sacrificial animal are the symbols of Allah.” It was also stated that Sha`a’ir Allah is what He prohibited. Therefore, it means, do not violate what Allah prohibited. Allah said afterwards,

ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุงู„ุดู‘ูŽู‡ู’ุฑูŽ ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุฑูŽุงู…ูŽ

(nor of the Sacred Month,) for you are required to respect and honor the Sacred Month and to refrain from what Allah forbade during it, such as fighting. This also lays emphasis on avoiding sins during that time. As Allah said;

ูŠูŽุณู’ู€ูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽูƒูŽ ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ุดู‘ูŽู‡ู’ุฑู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุฑูŽุงู…ู ู‚ูุชูŽุงู„ู ูููŠู‡ู ู‚ูู„ู’ ู‚ูุชูŽุงู„ูŒ ูููŠู‡ู ูƒูŽุจููŠุฑูŒ

(They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Month. Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression).”) and,

ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุนูุฏู‘ูŽุฉูŽ ุงู„ุดู‘ูู‡ููˆุฑู ุนูู†ุฏูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุงุซู’ู†ูŽุง ุนูŽุดูŽุฑูŽ ุดูŽู‡ู’ุฑุงู‹

(Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year). ) Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that Abu Bakrah said that the Messenger of Allah said during the Farewell Hajj,

ยซุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ุฒู‘ูŽู…ูŽุงู†ูŽ ู‚ูŽุฏู ุงุณู’ุชูŽุฏูŽุงุฑูŽ ูƒูŽู‡ูŽูŠู’ุฆูŽุชูู‡ู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‡ู ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽูˆุงุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฑู’ุถูŽ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู†ูŽุฉู ุงุซู’ู†ูŽุง ุนูŽุดูŽุฑูŽ ุดูŽู‡ู’ุฑู‹ุงุŒ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูŽุง ุฃูŽุฑู’ุจูŽุนูŽุฉูŒ ุญูุฑูู…ูŒุŒ ุซูŽู„ูŽุงุซูŒ ู…ูุชูŽูˆูŽุงู„ููŠูŽุงุชูŒ: ุฐููˆ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽุนู’ุฏูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุฐููˆ ุงู„ู’ุญูุฌู‘ูŽุฉู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ู…ูุญูŽุฑู‘ูŽู…ูุŒ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุฌูŽุจู ู…ูุถูŽุฑูŽ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠ ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽ ุฌูู…ูŽุงุฏูŽู‰ ูˆูŽุดูŽุนู’ุจูŽุงู†ยป

(The division of time has returned as it was when Allah created the Heavens and the earth. The year is twelve months, four of which are sacred: Three are in succession, (they are:) Dhul-Qa’dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (Ath-Thaniyah) and Sha’ban.) This Hadith testifies to the continued sanctity of these months until the end of time.

Taking the Hady to the Sacred House of Allah, Al-Ka`bah

Allah’s statement,

ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‡ูŽุฏู’ู‰ูŽ ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽู„ูŽู€ุฆูุฏูŽ

(nor of the Hady brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands,) means, do not abandon the practice of bringing the Hady (sacrificial animals) to the Sacred House, as this ritual is a form of honoring the symbols of Allah. Do not abandon the practice of garlanding these animals on their necks, so that they are distinguished from other cattle. This way, it will be known that these animals are intended to be offered as Hady at the Ka`bah, and thus those who might intend some harm to them would refrain from doing so. Those who see the Hady might be encouraged to imitate this ritual, and indeed, he who calls to a type of guidance, will earn rewards equal to the rewards of those who follow his lead, without decrease in their own rewards. When the Messenger of Allah intended to perform Hajj, he spent the night at Dhul-Hulayfah, which is also called Wadi Al-`Aqiq. In the morning, the Prophet made rounds with his wives, who were nine at that time, performed Ghusl (bath), applied some perfume and performed a two Rak`ah prayer. He then garlanded the Hady and announced aloud his intention to perform Hajj and `Umrah. The Prophet’s Hady at the time consisted of plenty of camels, more than sixty, and they were among the best animals, the healthiest and most physically acceptable, just as Allah’s statement proclaims,

ุฐู„ููƒูŽ ูˆูŽู…ูŽู† ูŠูุนูŽุธู‘ูู…ู’ ุดูŽุนูŽู€ุฆูุฑูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ููŽุฅูู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุง ู…ูู† ุชูŽู‚ู’ูˆูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูู„ููˆุจู

(Thus it is, and whosoever honors the symbols of Allah, then it is truly, from the piety of the hearts.) Muqatil bin Hayyan said that Allah’s statement,

ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽู„ูŽู€ุฆูุฏูŽ

(nor the garlands) means, “Do not breach their sanctity.” During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to garland themselves with animal hair and pelts when they left their areas in months other than the Sacred Months. The idolators of the Sacred House Area used to garland themselves with the tree-stems of the Sacred Area, so that they were granted safe passage.” This statement was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim, who also recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “There are two Ayat in this Surah (Al-Ma’idah) that were abrogated, the Ayah about the garlands 5:2, and

ููŽุฅูู† ุฌูŽุขุกููˆูƒูŽ ููŽุงุญู’ูƒูู…ู’ ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽูˆู’ ุฃูŽุนู’ุฑูุถู’ ุนูŽู†ู’ู‡ูู…ู’

(So if they come to you (O Muhammad ), either judge between them, or turn away from them.)”

The Necessity of Preserving the Sanctity and Safety of those who Intend to Travel to the Sacred House

Allah said,

ูˆูŽู„ุง ุกูŽุงู…ู‘ููŠู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ุจูŽูŠู’ุชูŽ ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุฑูŽุงู…ูŽ ูŠูŽุจู’ุชูŽุบููˆู†ูŽ ููŽุถู’ู„ุงู‹ ู…ู‘ูู† ุฑู‘ูŽุจู‘ูู‡ูู…ู’ ูˆูŽุฑูุถู’ูˆูŽู†ุงู‹

(nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord.) The Ayah commands: Do not fight people who are heading towards the Sacred House of Allah, which if anyone enters it, he must be granted safe refuge. Likewise, those who are heading towards the Sacred House seeking the bounty and good pleasure of Allah, must not be stopped, prevented, or frightened away from entering the Sacred House. Mujahid, `Ata’, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mutarrif bin `Abdullah, `Abdullah bin `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Qatadah and several others said that,

ูŠูŽุจู’ุชูŽุบููˆู†ูŽ ููŽุถู’ู„ุงู‹ ู…ู‘ูู† ุฑู‘ูŽุจู‘ูู‡ูู…ู’

(seeking the bounty of their Lord.) refers to trading. A similar discussion preceded concerning the Ayah;

ู„ูŽูŠู’ุณูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒูู…ู’ ุฌูู†ูŽุงุญูŒ ุฃูŽู† ุชูŽุจู’ุชูŽุบููˆุงู’ ููŽุถู’ู„ุงู‹ ู…ู‘ูู† ุฑู‘ูŽุจู‘ููƒูู…ู’

(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading).) Allah said;


(and pleasure. ) Ibn `Abbas said that the word `pleasure’ in the Ayah refers to, “seeking Allah’s pleasure by their Hajj.” `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ibn Jarir mentioned that this Ayah was revealed concerning Al-Hutam bin Hind Al-Bakri, who had raided the cattle belonging to the people of Al-Madinah. The following year, he wanted to perform `Umrah to the House of Allah and some of the Companions wanted to attack him on his way to the House. Allah revealed,

ูˆูŽู„ุง ุกูŽุงู…ู‘ููŠู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ุจูŽูŠู’ุชูŽ ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุฑูŽุงู…ูŽ ูŠูŽุจู’ุชูŽุบููˆู†ูŽ ููŽุถู’ู„ุงู‹ ู…ู‘ูู† ุฑู‘ูŽุจู‘ูู‡ูู…ู’ ูˆูŽุฑูุถู’ูˆูŽู†ุงู‹

(nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord.)

Hunting Game is Permissible After Ihram Ends

Allah said,

ูˆูŽุฅูุฐูŽุง ุญูŽู„ูŽู„ู’ุชูู…ู’ ููŽุงุตู’ุทูŽู€ุฏููˆุงู’

(But when you finish the Ihram, then hunt,) When you end your Ihram, it is permitted for you to hunt game, which was prohibited for you during Ihram. Although this Ayah contains a command that takes effect after the end of a state of prohibition (during Ihram in this case), the Ayah, in fact, brings back the ruling that was previously in effect. If the previous ruling was an obligation, the new command will uphold that obligation, and such is the case with recommended and permissible matters. There are many Ayat that deny that the ruling in such cases is always an obligation. Such is also the case against those who say that it is always merely allowed. What we mentioned here is the correct opinion that employs the available evidence, and Allah knows best.

Justice is Always Necessary

Allah said,

ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ูŠูŽุฌู’ุฑูู…ูŽู†ู‘ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ุดูŽู†ูŽุขู†ู ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุฃูŽู† ุตูŽุฏู‘ููˆูƒูู…ู’ ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽุณู’ุฌูุฏู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุฑูŽุงู…ู ุฃูŽู† ุชูŽุนู’ุชูŽุฏููˆุงู’

(and let not the hatred of some people in (once) stopping you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part).) The meaning of this Ayah is apparent, as it commands: Let not the hatred for some people, who prevented you from reaching the Sacred House in the year of Hudaybiyyah, make you transgress Allah’s Law and commit injustice against them in retaliation. Rather, rule as Allah has commanded you, being just with every one. We will explain a similar Ayah later on,

ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ูŠูŽุฌู’ุฑูู…ูŽู†ู‘ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ุดูŽู†ูŽุขู†ู ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุฃูŽู„ุงู‘ูŽ ุชูŽุนู’ุฏูู„ููˆุงู’ ุงุนู’ุฏูู„ููˆุงู’ ู‡ููˆูŽ ุฃูŽู‚ู’ุฑูŽุจู ู„ูู„ุชู‘ูŽู‚ู’ูˆูŽู‰

(And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety,) which commands: do not be driven by your hatred for some people into abandoning justice, for justice is ordained for everyone, in all situations. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Zayd bin Aslam said, “The Messenger of Allah and his Companions were in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah when the idolators prevented them from visiting the House, and that was especially hard on them. Later on, some idolators passed by them from the east intending to perform `Umrah. So the Companions of the Prophet said, `Let us prevent those (from `Umrah) just as their fellow idolators prevented us.’ Thereafter, Allah sent down this Ayah.” Ibn Abbas and others said that “Shana’an” refers to enmity and hate. Allah said next,

ูˆูŽุชูŽุนูŽุงูˆูŽู†ููˆุงู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ุจุฑู‘ู ูˆูŽุงู„ุชู‘ูŽู‚ู’ูˆูŽู‰ ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽุนูŽุงูˆูŽู†ููˆุงู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุฅูุซู’ู…ู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุนูุฏู’ูˆูŽุงู†ู

(Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa; but do not help one another in sin and transgression.) Allah commands His believing servants to help one another perform righteous, good deeds, which is the meaning of `Al-Birr’, and to avoid sins, which is the meaning of `At-Taqwa’. Allah forbids His servants from helping one another in sin, `Ithm’ and committing the prohibitions. Ibn Jarir said that, “Ithm means abandoning what Allah has ordained, while transgression means overstepping the limits that Allah set in your religion, along with overstepping what Allah has ordered concerning yourselves and others.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,

ยซุงู†ู’ุตูุฑู’ ุฃูŽุฎูŽุงูƒูŽ ุธูŽุงู„ูู…ู‹ุง ุฃูŽูˆู’ ู…ูŽุธู’ู„ููˆู…ู‹ุงยป

(Support your brother whether he was unjust or the victim of injustice.) He was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! We know about helping him when he suffers injustice, so what about helping him when he commits injustice” He said,

ยซุชูŽุญู’ุฌูุฒูู‡ู ูˆูŽุชูŽู…ู’ู†ูŽุนูู‡ู ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ุธู‘ูู„ู’ู…ู ููŽุฐูŽุงูƒูŽ ู†ูŽุตู’ุฑูู‡ยป

(Prevent and stop him from committing injustice, and this represents giving support to him.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith through Hushaym. Ahmad recorded that one of the Companions of the Prophet narrated the Hadith,

ยซุงู„ู’ู…ูุคู’ู…ูู†ู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠ ูŠูุฎูŽุงู„ูุทู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุณูŽ ูˆูŽูŠูŽุตู’ุจูุฑู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุฃูŽุฐูŽุงู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽุนู’ุธูŽู…ู ุฃูŽุฌู’ุฑู‹ุง ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠ ู„ูŽุง ูŠูุฎูŽุงู„ูุทู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุณูŽ ูˆูŽู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุตู’ุจูุฑู ุนูŽู„ู‰ ุฃูŽุฐูŽุงู‡ูู…ยป

(The believer who mingles with people and is patient with their annoyance, earns more reward than the believer who does not mingle with people and does not observe patience with their annoyance.) Muslim recorded a Hadith that states,

ยซู…ูŽู†ู’ ุฏูŽุนูŽุง ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ู‡ูุฏู‹ู‰ ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุฌู’ุฑู ู…ูุซู’ู„ู ุฃูุฌููˆุฑู ู…ูŽู†ู ุงุชู‘ูŽุจูŽุนูŽู‡ู ุฅูู„ู‰ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ู’ู‚ููŠูŽุงู…ูŽุฉู ู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽู†ู’ู‚ูุตู ุฐู„ููƒูŽ ู…ูู†ู’ ุฃูุฌููˆุฑูู‡ูู…ู’ ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุงุŒ ูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ุฏูŽุนูŽุง ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุถูŽู„ูŽุงู„ูŽุฉู ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฅูุซู’ู…ู ู…ูุซู’ู„ู ุขุซูŽุงู…ู ู…ูŽู†ู ุงุชู‘ูŽุจูŽุนูŽู‡ู ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ู’ู‚ููŠูŽุงู…ูŽุฉูุŒ ู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽู†ู’ู‚ูุตู ุฐู„ููƒูŽ ู…ูู†ู’ ุขุซูŽุงู…ูู‡ูู…ู’ ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุงยป

(He who calls to a guidance, will earn a reward similar to the rewards of those who accept his call, until the Day of Resurrection, without decreasing their rewards. Whoever calls to a heresy, will carry a burden similar to the burdens of those who accept his call, until the Day of Resurrection, without decreasing their own burdens.)

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