No One will have to bear the Sins of Another

Allah tells us that whoever is guided and follows the truth, walking in the footsteps of the Prophet , he will gain the good consequences of that for himself.

ูˆูŽู…ูŽู† ุถูŽู„ู‘ูŽ

(And whoever goes astray,) meaning from the truth, deviating from the way of guidance, he is wronging himself and will have to bear the consequences. Then Allah says:

ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุชูŽุฒูุฑู ูˆูŽุงุฒูุฑูŽุฉูŒ ูˆูุฒู’ุฑูŽ ุฃูุฎู’ุฑูŽู‰

(No one laden with burdens can bear another’s burden.) no one will have to bear the sins of another, and he does not wrong anyone besides himself, as Allah says:

ูˆูŽุฅูู† ุชูŽุฏู’ุนู ู…ูุซู’ู‚ูŽู„ูŽุฉูŒ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุญูู…ู’ู„ูู‡ูŽุง ู„ุงูŽ ูŠูุญู’ู…ูŽู„ู’ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ู ุดูŽู‰ู’ุกูŒ

(and if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted) 35:15 There is no contradiction between this and other Ayat:

ูˆูŽู„ูŽูŠูŽุญู’ู…ูู„ูู†ู‘ูŽ ุฃูŽุซู’ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ูˆูŽุฃูŽุซู’ู‚ูŽุงู„ุงู‹ ู…ู‘ูŽุนูŽ ุฃูŽุซู’ู‚ูŽุงู„ูู‡ูู…ู’

(And verily, they shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own.) 29:13 and:

ูˆูŽู…ูู†ู’ ุฃูŽูˆู’ุฒูŽุงุฑู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูŠูุถูู„ู‘ููˆู†ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุจูุบูŽูŠู’ุฑู ุนูู„ู’ู…ู

(and also of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge.) 16:25 For those who called others to do evil will bear the sin of their own deviation as well as the sin of those whom they led astray, without detracting the least amount from the burden of those people, and none of this burden shall be removed from them. This is the justice and mercy of Allah towards His servants. As Allah says:

ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ูƒูู†ู‘ูŽุง ู…ูุนูŽุฐู‘ูุจููŠู†ูŽ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ู†ูŽุจู’ุนูŽุซูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ุงู‹

(And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).)

No Punishment until a Messenger has been sent

Allah tells us that out of His justice, He does not punish anyone until He has established proof against him by sending a Messenger to him, as He says:

ุชูŽูƒูŽุงุฏู ุชูŽู…ูŽูŠู‘ูŽุฒู ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ุบูŽูŠู’ุธู ูƒูู„ู‘ูŽู…ูŽุง ุฃูู„ู’ู‚ูู‰ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ููŽูˆู’ุฌูŒ ุณูŽุฃูŽู„ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุฎูŽุฒูŽู†ูŽุชูู‡ูŽุข ุฃูŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูŽุฃู’ุชููƒูู…ู’ ู†ูŽุฐููŠุฑูŒ – ู‚ูŽุงู„ููˆุงู’ ุจูŽู„ูŽู‰ ู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุฌูŽุขุกูŽู†ูŽุง ู†ูŽุฐููŠุฑูŒ ููŽูƒูŽุฐู‘ูŽุจู’ู†ูŽุง ูˆูŽู‚ูู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ู…ูŽุง ู†ูŽุฒู‘ูŽู„ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู…ูู† ุดูŽู‰ู’ุกู ุฅูู†ู’ ุฃูŽู†ุชูู…ู’ ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ููู‰ ุถูŽู„ูŽู€ู„ู ูƒูŽุจููŠุฑู

(Every time a group is cast therein, its keeper will ask: “Did no warner come to you” They will say: “Yes, indeed a warner did come to us, but we belied him and said: `Allah never sent down anything (of revelation); you are only in great error.”‘) (67:8-9) And,

ูˆูŽุณููŠู‚ูŽ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠู†ูŽ ูƒูŽู€ููŽุฑููˆุงู’ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุฌูŽู‡ูŽู†ู‘ูŽู…ูŽ ุฒูู…ูŽุฑุงู‹ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ุฅูุฐูŽุง ุฌูŽุขุกููˆู‡ูŽุง ููุชูุญูŽุชู’ ุฃูŽุจู’ูˆูŽุจูู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุฎูŽุฒูŽู†ูŽุชูู‡ูŽุข ุฃูŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูŽุฃู’ุชููƒูู…ู’ ุฑูุณูู„ูŒ ู…ู‘ูู†ูƒูู…ู’ ูŠูŽุชู’ู„ููˆู†ูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒูู…ู’ ุกูŽุงูŠูŽู€ุชู ุฑูŽุจู‘ููƒูู…ู’ ูˆูŽูŠูู†ุฐูุฑููˆู†ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ู„ูู‚ูŽู€ุขุกูŽ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ููƒูู…ู’ ู‡ูŽู€ุฐูŽุง ู‚ูŽุงู„ููˆุงู’ ุจูŽู„ูŽู‰ ูˆูŽู„ูŽู€ูƒูู†ู’ ุญูŽู‚ู‘ูŽุชู’ ูƒูŽู„ูู…ูŽุฉู ุงู„ู’ุนูŽุฐูŽุงุจู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ูƒูŽู€ููุฑููŠู†ูŽ

(And those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in groups, till, when they reach it, the gates thereof will be opened. And its keepers will say, “Did not the Messengers come to you from yourselves – reciting to you the verses of your Lord, and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours” They will say: “Yes,” but the Word of torment has been justified against the disbelievers!) (39:71) And,

ูˆูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ูŠูŽุตู’ุทูŽุฑูุฎููˆู†ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุฑูŽุจู‘ูŽู†ูŽุข ุฃูŽุฎู’ุฑูุฌู’ู†ูŽุง ู†ูŽุนู’ู…ูŽู„ู’ ุตูŽู€ู„ูุญุงู‹ ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑูŽ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐูู‰ ูƒูู€ู†ู‘ูŽุง ู†ูŽุนู’ู…ูŽู„ู ุฃูŽูˆูŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ู†ูุนูŽู…ู‘ูุฑู’ูƒูู…ู’ ู…ู‘ูŽุง ูŠูŽุชูŽุฐูŽูƒู‘ูŽุฑู ูููŠู‡ู ู…ูŽู† ุชูŽุฐูŽูƒู‘ูŽุฑูŽ ูˆูŽุฌูŽุขุกูŽูƒูู…ู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุฐููŠุฑู ููŽุฐููˆู‚ููˆุงู’ ููŽู…ูŽุง ู„ูู„ุธู‘ูŽู€ู„ูู…ููŠู†ูŽ ู…ูู† ู†ู‘ูŽุตููŠุฑู

(Therein they will cry: “Our Lord! Bring us out, we shall do righteous good deeds, not (the evil deeds) that we used to do.” (Allah will reply:) “Did We not give you lives long enough, so that whosoever would receive admonition could receive it And the warner came to you. So taste you (the evil of your deeds). For the wrongdoers there is no helper.”) (35:37) There are other Ayat which indicate that Allah will not make anyone enter Hell except after sending a Messenger to them.

The Issue of Small Children who die

Here there arises an issue over which the scholars in earlier and modern times have disagreed, may Allah have mercy on them. This is the issue of children who die when they are little, and their parents are disbelievers: what happens to them By the same token, what happens to the insane, the deaf, the senile and those who die during the circumstances of Fatrah, when no Message reached them Several Hadiths have been narrated on this topic, which I will quote here by the help and support of Allah. The First Hadith from Al-Aswad bin Sar ยฎ299ุ› Imam Ahmad reported from Al-Aswad bin Sari’ that the Messenger of Allah said,

ยซุฃูŽุฑู’ุจูŽุนูŽุฉูŒ ูŠูŽุญู’ุชูŽุฌู‘ููˆู†ูŽ ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ููŠูŽุงู…ูŽุฉู: ุฑูŽุฌูู„ูŒ ุฃูŽุตูŽู…ู‘ู ู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุณู’ู…ูŽุนู ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุงุŒ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุฌูู„ูŒ ุฃูŽุญู’ู…ูŽู‚ูุŒ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุฌูู„ูŒ ู‡ูŽุฑูู…ูŒุŒ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุฌูู„ูŒ ู…ูŽุงุชูŽ ูููŠ ููŽุชู’ุฑูŽุฉูุŒ ููŽุฃูŽู…ู‘ูŽุง ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุตูŽู…ู‘ู ููŽูŠูŽู‚ููˆู„ู: ุฑูŽุจู‘ู ู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุฌูŽุงุกูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฅูุณู’ู„ูŽุงู…ู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุฃูŽุณู’ู…ูŽุนู ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุงุŒ ูˆูŽุฃูŽู…ู‘ูŽุง ุงู„ู’ุฃูŽุญู’ู…ูŽู‚ู ููŽูŠูŽู‚ููˆู„ู: ุฑูŽุจู‘ู ู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุฌูŽุงุกูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฅูุณู’ู„ูŽุงู…ู ูˆูŽุงู„ุตู‘ูุจู’ูŠูŽุงู†ู ูŠูŽุญู’ุฐููููˆู†ููŠ ุจูุงู„ู’ุจูŽุนู’ุฑูุŒ ูˆูŽุฃูŽู…ู‘ูŽุง ุงู„ู’ู‡ูŽุฑูู…ู ููŽูŠูŽู‚ููˆู„ู: ุฑูŽุจู‘ู ู„ูŽู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุฌูŽุงุกูŽ ุงู„ู’ุฅูุณู’ู„ูŽุงู…ู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุฃูŽุนู’ู‚ูู„ู ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆู‹ุงุŒ ูˆูŽุฃูŽู…ู‘ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠ ู…ูŽุงุชูŽ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ููŽุชู’ุฑูŽุฉู ููŽูŠูŽู‚ููˆู„ู: ุฑูŽุจู‘ู ู…ูŽุง ุฃูŽุชูŽุงู†ููŠ ู„ูŽูƒูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ูŒ. ููŽูŠูŽุฃู’ุฎูุฐู ู…ูŽูˆูŽุงุซููŠู‚ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ู„ููŠูุทููŠุนูŽู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูุŒ ููŽูŠูุฑู’ุณูู„ู ุฅูู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽู†ู ุงุฏู’ุฎูู„ููˆุง ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุฑูŽุŒ ููŽูˆูŽุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐููŠ ู†ูŽูู’ุณู ู…ูุญูŽู…ู‘ูŽุฏู ุจููŠูŽุฏูู‡ูุŒ ู„ูŽูˆู’ ุฏูŽุฎูŽู„ููˆู‡ูŽุง ู„ูŽูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุจูŽุฑู’ุฏู‹ุง ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ูŽุงู…ู‹ุงยป

(There are four who will present their case on the Day of Resurrection: a deaf man who never heard anything, an insane man, a very old and senile man, and a man who died during the Fatrah. As for the deaf man, he will say, “O Lord, Islam came but I never heard anything.” As for the insane man, he will say, “O Lord, Islam came and the young boys were throwing camel dung at me.” As for the senile man, he will say, “O Lord, Islam came and I did not understand anything.” As for the one who died during the Fatrah, he will say, “O Lord, no Messenger from You came to me.” Allah will accept their pledge of obedience to Him, then He will send word to them that they should enter the Fire. By the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, if they enter it, it will be cool and safe for them.) There is a similar report with a chain from Qatadah from Al-Hasan from Abu Rafi` from Abu Hurayrah, but at the end it says:

ยซููŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ุฏูŽุฎูŽู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ุจูŽุฑู’ุฏู‹ุง ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ูŽุงู…ู‹ุงุŒ ูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูŽุฏู’ุฎูู„ู’ู‡ูŽุง ูŠูุณู’ุญูŽุจู ุฅูู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูŽุงยป

(Whoever enters it will find it cool and safe, and whoever does not enter it will be dragged into it.) This was also recorded by Ishaq bin Rahwayh from Mu`adh bin Hisham, and by Al-Bayhaqi in Al-I`tiqad. He said: “This is a Sahih chain.” It was reported by Ibn Jarir from the Hadith of Ma`mar from Hammam from Abu Hurayrah, who attributed it to the Prophet . Then Abu Hurayrah said: “Recite, if you wish:

ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ูƒูู†ู‘ูŽุง ู…ูุนูŽุฐู‘ูุจููŠู†ูŽ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ู†ูŽุจู’ุนูŽุซูŽ ุฑูŽุณููˆู„ุงู‹

(And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning)).” This was also narrated by Ma`mar from `Abdullah bin Tawus from his father, from Abu Hurayrah, but it is Mauquf (it was not attributed directly to the Prophet ).

The Second Hadith from Abu Hurayrah

He said that the Messenger of Allah said:

ยซูƒูู„ู‘ู ู…ูŽูˆู’ู„ููˆุฏู ูŠููˆู„ูŽุฏู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ููุทู’ุฑูŽุฉูุŒ ููŽุฃูŽุจูŽูˆูŽุงู‡ู ูŠูู‡ูŽูˆู‘ูุฏูŽุงู†ูู‡ู ุฃูŽูˆู’ ูŠูู†ูŽุตู‘ูุฑูŽุงู†ูู‡ู ุฃูŽูˆู’ ูŠูู…ูŽุฌู‘ูุณูŽุงู†ูู‡ูุŒ ูƒูŽู…ูŽุง ุชูู†ู’ุชูุฌู ุงู„ู’ุจูŽู‡ููŠู…ูŽุฉู ุจูŽู‡ููŠู…ูŽุฉู‹ ุฌูŽู…ู’ุนูŽุงุกูŽุŒ ู‡ูŽู„ู’ ุชูุญูุณู‘ููˆู†ูŽ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ู…ูู†ู’ ุฌูŽุฏู’ุนูŽุงุกูŽุŸยป

(Every newborn is born in a state of Fitrah (the natural state of man), then his parents make him into a Jew or Christian or Zoroastrian, as animals produce whole animals – do you see any that is born mutilated (with something missing)) According to one report they said: “O Messenger of Allah, what about those who die when they are little” He said,

ยซุงู„ู„ู‡ู ุฃูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ุจูู…ูŽุง ูƒูŽุงู†ููˆุง ุนูŽุงู…ูู„ููŠู†ยป

(Allah knows best what they would have done.) Imam Ahmad reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet () as far as I know – the narrator was not sure if it was attributed to Musa – said:

ยซุฐูŽุฑูŽุงุฑููŠู‘ู ุงู„ู’ู…ูุณู’ู„ูู…ููŠู†ูŽ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ู‘ูŽุฉู ูŠูŽูƒู’ููู„ูู‡ูู…ู’ ุฅูุจู’ุฑูŽุงู‡ููŠู…ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู„ูŽุงู…ยป

(The children of the Muslims are in Paradise, being taken care of by Ibrahim.) In Sahih Muslim it is reported from `Iyyad bin Hammad that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said:

ยซุฅูู†ู‘ููŠ ุฎูŽู„ูŽู‚ู’ุชู ุนูุจูŽุงุฏููŠ ุญูู†ูŽููŽุงุกยป

(I have created My servants as Hunafa.) According to another version, the wording is “as Muslims.”

The Third Hadith from Samurah

In his book Al-Mustakhraj `Ala Al-Bukhari, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Barqani recorded the Hadith of `Awf Al-A`rabi, from Abu Raja’ Al-`Utardi from Samurah that the Prophet said:

ยซูƒูู„ู‘ู ู…ูŽูˆู’ู„ููˆุฏู ูŠููˆู„ูŽุฏู ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ููุทู’ุฑูŽุฉยป

(Every newborn is born in a state of Fitrah.) The people called out to him: “O Messenger of Allah! What about the children of the idolators” He said,

ยซูˆูŽุฃูŽูˆู’ู„ูŽุงุฏู ุงู„ู’ู…ูุดู’ุฑููƒููŠู†ยป

(And the children of the idolators too.) At-Tabarani reported that Samurah said: “We asked the Messenger of Allah about the children of the idolators, and he said,

ยซู‡ูู…ู’ ุฎูŽุฏูŽู…ู ุฃูŽู‡ู’ู„ู ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ู‘ูŽุฉยป

(They are the servants of the people of Paradise.)

The Fourth Hadith from the Paternal Uncle of Hasna

Ahmad reported that Hasna’ bint Mu`awiyah, from Bani Suraym, said that his paternal uncle said to him: “I said, `O Messenger of Allah, who is in Paradise’ He said,

ยซุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุจููŠู‘ู ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ู‘ูŽุฉูุŒ ูˆูŽุงู„ุดู‘ูŽู‡ููŠุฏู ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ู‘ูŽุฉูุŒ ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูˆู’ู„ููˆุฏู ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ู‘ูŽุฉูุŒ ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ูˆูŽุฆููŠุฏู ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽู†ู‘ูŽุฉยป

(Prophets are in Paradise, martyrs are in Paradise, infants are in Paradise and baby girls who were buried alive are in Paradise.)

It is Makruh to discuss this Matter

In order to discuss this issue we need good, sound proof, but people who have no knowledge of Shari`ah may try to speak about it. For this reason some of the scholars did not like to discuss it. This view has been narrated from Ibn `Abbas, Al-Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah and others. Ibn Hibban recorded in his Sahih that Jarir bin Hazim said: I heard Abu Raja’ Al-`Utardi saying that he heard Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) saying, “While he was on the Minbar, the Messenger of Allah said:

ยซู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุฒูŽุงู„ู ุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑู ู‡ูŽุฐูู‡ู ุงู„ู’ุฃูู…ู‘ูŽุฉู ู…ููˆูŽุงุชููŠู‹ุง ุฃูŽูˆู’ ู…ูู‚ูŽุงุฑูุจูŽุง ู…ูŽุง ู„ูŽู…ู’ ูŠูŽุชูŽูƒูŽู„ู‘ูŽู…ููˆุง ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ูˆูู„ู’ุฏูŽุงู†ู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽุฏูŽุฑยป

(This Ummah will be fine so long as they do not talk about children and the divine decree.)” Ibn Hibban said: “This means talking about the children of the idolators.” Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar also recorded it via Jarir bin Hazim, then he said, “A group narrated it from Abu Raja’ from Ibn `Abbas, but it is Mauquf”.

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