Allah’s Knowledge, Power and Kingdom are Limitless

Allah the Exalted states that He created the heavens and earth, and all that is between them, in six Days and then rose over the Throne after He created them. We discussed this before in the explanation of Surat Al-A`raf, so it is not necessary to repeat the meaning here. Allah’s statement,

ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู…ูŽุง ูŠูŽู„ู’ุฌู ููู‰ ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฑู’ุถู

(He knows what goes into the earth), indicates His knowledge in the amount of seeds and drops of water that enter inside the earth’s surface,

ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ูŠูŽุฎู’ุฑูุฌู ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูŽุง

(and what comes forth from it) of plants, vegetation and fruits. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

ูˆูŽุนูู†ุฏูŽู‡ู ู…ูŽููŽุงุชูุญู ุงู„ู’ุบูŽูŠู’ุจู ู„ุงูŽ ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ูู‡ูŽุข ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ู‡ููˆูŽ ูˆูŽูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู…ูŽุง ููู‰ ุงู„ู’ุจูŽุฑู‘ู ูˆูŽุงู„ู’ุจูŽุญู’ุฑู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุชูŽุณู’ู‚ูุทู ู…ูู† ูˆูŽุฑูŽู‚ูŽุฉู ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ูู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุญูŽุจู‘ูŽุฉู ููู‰ ุธูู„ูู…ูŽู€ุชู ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฑู’ุถู ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ุฑูŽุทู’ุจู ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ูŠูŽุงุจูุณู ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ููู‰ ูƒูุชูŽู€ุจู ู…ู‘ูุจููŠู†ู

(And with Him are the keys of all that is hidden, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.)(6:59) Allah’s statement,

ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ูŠูŽู†ุฒูู„ู ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽุขุกู

(and what descends from the heaven), pertains to rain, snow, hail and whatever Allah decides descends from heaven of decisions and commandments brought down by the honorable angels. Allah’s statement,

ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ูŠูŽุนู’ุฑูุฌู ูููŠู‡ูŽุง

(and what ascends thereto.), refers to angels and deeds. In the Sahih, there is a Hadith in which the Prophet said,

ยซูŠูุฑู’ููŽุนู ุฅูู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ุนูŽู…ูŽู„ู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ู ู‚ูŽุจู’ู„ูŽ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑูุŒ ูˆูŽุนูŽู…ูŽู„ู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑู ู‚ูŽุจู’ู„ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ยป

(To Him ascend the deeds of the night before the day falls and the deeds of the day before the night falls.) Allah said,

ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ู…ูŽุนูŽูƒูู…ู’ ุฃูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽ ู…ูŽุง ูƒูู†ุชูู…ู’ ูˆูŽุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุจูู…ูŽุง ุชูŽุนู’ู…ูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ ุจูŽุตููŠุฑูŒ

(And He is with you wheresoever you may be. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.) meaning, He is watching over you and witnessing your deeds wherever you may be, on land or at sea, during the night or the day, at home or in open areas or deserts. All of that is the same before His knowledge and all of it is under His sight and hearing. He hears your speech and sees where you are. He knows your secrets and your public statements,

ุฃูŽู„ุง ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ูŠูŽุซู’ู†ููˆู†ูŽ ุตูุฏููˆุฑูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ู„ููŠูŽุณู’ุชูŽุฎู’ูููˆุงู’ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ู ุฃูŽู„ุง ุญููŠู†ูŽ ูŠูŽุณู’ุชูŽุบู’ุดููˆู†ูŽ ุซููŠูŽุงุจูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู…ูŽุง ูŠูุณูุฑู‘ููˆู†ูŽ ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ูŠูุนู’ู„ูู†ููˆู†ูŽ ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุนูŽู„ููŠู…ูŒ ุจูุฐูŽุงุชู ุงู„ุตู‘ูุฏููˆุฑู

(No doubt! They did fold up their breasts, that they may hide from Him. Surely, even when they cover themselves with their garments, He knows what they conceal and what they reveal. Verily, He is the All-Knower of the (secrets) of the breasts. )(11:5) Allah the Exalted said,

ุณูŽูˆูŽุขุกูŒ ู…ู‘ูู†ู’ูƒูู…ู’ ู…ู‘ูŽู†ู’ ุฃูŽุณูŽุฑู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู„ูŽ ูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ุฌูŽู‡ูŽุฑูŽ ุจูู‡ู ูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ู‡ููˆูŽ ู…ูุณู’ุชูŽุฎู’ูู ุจูุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ู ูˆูŽุณูŽุงุฑูุจูŒ ุจูุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑู

(It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceals his speech or declares it openly, whether he be hid by night or goes forth freely by day.)(13:10) Surely, there is no deity worthy of worship, except Allah. In the Sahih, there is a Hadith in which the Messenger of Allah answered Jibril, when he asked him about Ihsan:

ยซุฃูŽู†ู’ ุชูŽุนู’ุจูุฏูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‡ูŽ ูƒูŽุฃูŽู†ู‘ูŽูƒูŽ ุชูŽุฑูŽุงู‡ูุŒ ููŽุฅูู†ู’ ู„ูŽู…ู’ ุชูŽูƒูู†ู’ ุชูŽุฑูŽุงู‡ู ููŽุฅูู†ู‘ูŽู‡ู ูŠูŽุฑูŽุงูƒยป

(To worship Allah as if you see Him, and even though you cannot see Him, He surely sees you.) Allah’s statement,

ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู…ูู„ู’ูƒู ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽู€ูˆูŽุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฑู’ุถู ูˆูŽุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุชูุฑู’ุฌูŽุนู ุงู„ุงู‘ูู…ููˆุฑู

(His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. And to Allh return all the matters.) asserts that Allah is the King and Owner of this life and the Hereafter. Allah said in another Ayah,

ูˆูŽุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ู„ูŽู†ูŽุง ู„ูŽู„ุงู‘ูŒุฎูุฑูŽุฉูŽ ูˆูŽุงู„ุงู‘ููˆู„ูŽู‰

(And truly, unto Us (belong) the last (Hereafter) and the first (this world).)(92:13) Surely, Allah is praised for this attribute, just as He said in other Ayat,

ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู„ุง ุฅูู„ูŽู€ู‡ูŽ ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ู‡ููˆูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏู ููู‰ ุงู„ุงู‘ููˆู„ูŽู‰ ูˆูŽุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฎูุฑูŽุฉู

(And He is Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa, all praise is His in the first and in the last.)(28:70), and,

ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏู ู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐูู‰ ู„ูŽู‡ู ู…ูŽุง ููู‰ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽู€ูˆูŽุชู ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ููู‰ ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฑู’ุถู ูˆูŽู„ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู…ู’ุฏู ููู‰ ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฎูุฑูŽุฉู ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ู’ุญูŽูƒููŠู…ู ุงู„ู’ุฎูŽุจููŠุฑู

(All the praise is Allah’s, to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. His is all the praise in the Hereafter, and He is the All-Wise, the All-Aware.)(34:1) Allah owns everything that is in the heavens and earth, and all their inhabitants are servants to Him and humble before Him, just as He said,

ุฅูู† ูƒูู„ู‘ู ู…ูŽู† ููู‰ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽู€ูˆูŽุชู ูˆูŽุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฑู’ุถู ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ุขุชูู‰ ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุญู’ู…ูŽู€ู†ู ุนูŽุจู’ุฏุงู‹ – ู„ู‘ูŽู‚ูŽุฏู’ ุฃูŽุญู’ุตูŽู€ู‡ูู…ู’ ูˆูŽุนูŽุฏู‘ูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ุนูŽุฏู‘ุงู‹ – ูˆูŽูƒูู„ู‘ูู‡ูู…ู’ ุกูŽุงุชููŠู‡ู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ููŠูŽู€ู…ูŽุฉู ููŽุฑู’ุฏุงู‹

(There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious as a servant. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And every one of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.) (19:93-95) This is why Allah said here,

ูˆูŽุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุชูุฑู’ุฌูŽุนู ุงู„ุฃูู…ููˆุฑู

(And to Allah return all the matters.) meaning that all matters will be referred to Him on the Day of Resurrection and He will judge His creation as He wills. Indeed, He is the Most Just, Who never falls into injustice, not even the weight of a speck of dust; if one performs even one good deed, Allah will multiply it up to ten times,

ูˆูŽูŠูุคู’ุชู ู…ูู† ู„ู‘ูŽุฏูู†ู’ู‡ู ุฃูŽุฌู’ุฑุงู‹ ุนูŽุธููŠู…ุงู‹

(and gives from Him a great reward. )(4:40),

ูˆูŽู†ูŽุถูŽุนู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูˆูŽุฒููŠู†ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูุณู’ุทูŽ ู„ููŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ุงู„ู’ู‚ููŠูŽู€ู…ูŽุฉู ููŽู„ุงูŽ ุชูุธู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู†ูŽูู’ุณูŒ ุดูŽูŠู’ุฆุงู‹ ูˆูŽุฅูู† ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ู…ูุซู’ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ุญูŽุจู‘ูŽุฉู ู…ู‘ูู†ู’ ุฎูŽุฑู’ุฏูŽู„ู ุฃูŽุชูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุง ุจูู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽูƒูŽููŽู‰ ุจูู†ูŽุง ุญูŽู€ุณูุจููŠู†ูŽ

(And We shall set up Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And sufficent are We to take account.)(21:47) Allah’s statement,

ูŠููˆู„ูุฌู ุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ูŽ ููู‰ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑู ูˆูŽูŠููˆู„ูุฌู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑูŽ ููู‰ ุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ู

(He merges night into day, and merges day into night,) meaning, He does what He wills with His creatures. He alternates the night and day and measures them by His wisdom, as He wills. Sometimes, He makes the night longer than the day, and sometimes the opposite. Sometimes, He makes the length of night and day equal. Sometimes, He makes the season winter, then changes it to spring, then summer then autumn. All this He does by His wisdom and His due measure of everything in His creation,

ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุนูŽู„ููŠู…ูŒ ุจูุฐูŽุงุชู ุงู„ุตู‘ูุฏููˆุฑู

(and He has full knowledge of whatsoever is in the breasts.) He knows the secrets, no matter how concealed they are.

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