The Servants are in Allah’s Hands Before and After Death

Allah states that He brings death to His servants in their sleep at night, for sleep is minor death. Allah said in other Ayat,

ุฅูุฐู’ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ูŠุนููŠุณูŽู‰ ุฅูู†ู‘ููŠ ู…ูุชูŽูˆูŽูู‘ููŠูƒูŽ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุงููุนููƒูŽ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ู‘ูŽ

(And (remember) when Allah said: “O `Isa! I will take you and raise you to Myself…”) 3:55, and,

ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ูŠูŽุชูŽูˆูŽูู‘ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒู†ููุณูŽ ุญููŠู†ูŽ ู…ููˆู’ุชูู€ู‡ูŽุง ูˆูŽุงู„ู‘ูŽุชูู‰ ู„ูŽู…ู’ ุชูŽู…ูุชู’ ููู‰ ู…ูŽู†ูŽุงู…ูู€ู‡ูŽุง ููŽูŠูู…ู’ุณููƒู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุชูู‰ ู‚ูŽุถูŽู‰ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูˆู’ุชูŽ ูˆูŽูŠูุฑู’ุณูู„ู ุงู„ุงู‘ูุฎู’ุฑูŽู‰ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุฃูŽุฌูŽู„ู ู…ู‘ูุณูŽู…ู‘ู‹ู‰

(It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep. He keeps those (souls) for which He has ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed.)39:42, ,thus mentioning both minor and major death. Allah says,

ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐูู‰ ูŠูŽุชูŽูˆูŽูู‘ูŽู€ูƒูู… ุจูุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ู ูˆูŽูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู…ูŽุง ุฌูŽุฑูŽุญู’ุชูู… ุจูุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑู

(It is He, Who takes your souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day,) meaning, He knows the deeds and actions that you perform during the day. This Ayah demonstrates Allah’s perfect knowledge of His creation, by day and night, and in their movements and idleness. Allah said in other Ayat,

ุณูŽูˆูŽุขุกูŒ ู…ู‘ูู†ู’ูƒูู…ู’ ู…ู‘ูŽู†ู’ ุฃูŽุณูŽุฑู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู„ูŽ ูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ุฌูŽู‡ูŽุฑูŽ ุจูู‡ู ูˆูŽู…ูŽู†ู’ ู‡ููˆูŽ ู…ูุณู’ุชูŽุฎู’ูู ุจูุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ู ูˆูŽุณูŽุงุฑูุจูŒ ุจูุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑู

(It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceal his speech or declare it openly, whether he be hid by night or go forth freely by day.) 13:10, and

ูˆูŽู…ูู† ุฑู‘ูŽุญู’ู…ูŽุชูู‡ู ุฌูŽุนูŽู„ูŽ ู„ูŽูƒูู…ู ุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ูŽ ูˆูŽุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑูŽ ู„ูุชูŽุณู’ูƒูู†ููˆุงู’ ูููŠู‡ู

(It is out of His mercy that He made night and day, so that you may rest therein), by night,

ูˆูŽู„ูุชูŽุจู’ุชูŽุบููˆุงู’ ู…ูู† ููŽุถู’ู„ูู‡ู

(and that you may seek of His bounty) by day. Allah said,

ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ูŽ ู„ูุจูŽุงุณุงู‹ – ูˆูŽุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑูŽ ู…ูŽุนูŽุงุดุงู‹

(And (We) have made the night as a covering. And (We) have made the day for livelihood.) 78:10-11. Allah said here,

ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุฐูู‰ ูŠูŽุชูŽูˆูŽูู‘ูŽู€ูƒูู… ุจูุงู„ู‘ูŽูŠู’ู„ู ูˆูŽูŠูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ู ู…ูŽุง ุฌูŽุฑูŽุญู’ุชูู… ุจูุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽุงุฑู

(It is He, Who takes your souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have done by day,) 6:60, Then said,

ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ูŠูŽุจู’ุนูŽุซููƒูู…ู’ ูููŠู‡ู

(then he raises (wakes) you up again,) by day, according to Mujahid, Qatadah and As-Suddi. Allah’s statement,

ู„ููŠูู‚ู’ุถูŽู‰ ุฃูŽุฌูŽู„ูŒ ู…ู‘ุณูŽู…ู‘ู‹ู‰

(that a term appointed be fulfilled) refers to the life span of every person,

ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ุฅูู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ู…ูŽุฑู’ุฌูุนููƒูู…ู’

(then (in the end), unto Him will be your return.) on the Day of Resurrection,

ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ูŠูู†ูŽุจู‘ูุฆููƒูู… ุจูู…ูŽุง ูƒูู†ุชูู…ู’ ุชูŽุนู’ู…ูŽู„ููˆู†ูŽ

(Then He will inform you of what you used to do.) He will reward you, good for good, and evil for evil. Allah’s statement,

ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽุงู‡ูุฑู ููŽูˆู’ู‚ูŽ ุนูุจูŽุงุฏูู‡ู

(He is the Qahir over His servants.) The Qahir means, the one who controls everything, all are subservient to His supreme grace, greatness and majesty,

ูˆูŽูŠูุฑู’ุณูู„ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒูู… ุญูŽููŽุธูŽุฉู‹

(and He sends guardians over you,) angels who guard mankind. In another Ayah, Allah said;

ู„ูŽู‡ู ู…ูุนูŽู‚ู‘ูุจูŽู€ุชูŒ ู…ู‘ูู† ุจูŽูŠู’ู†ู ูŠูŽุฏูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽู…ูู†ู’ ุฎูŽู„ู’ููู‡ู ูŠูŽุญู’ููŽุธููˆู†ูŽู‡ู ู…ูู†ู’ ุฃูŽู…ู’ุฑู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู

(For each (person), there are angels in succession, before and behind him. They guard him by the command of Allah.) 13:11, watching his deeds and recording them. Allah said,

ูˆูŽุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ูƒูู…ู’ ู„ูŽุญูŽู€ููุธููŠู†ูŽ

(But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind) to watch you.) 82:10, and,

ุฅูุฐู’ ูŠูŽุชูŽู„ูŽู‚ู‘ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุชูŽู„ูŽู‚ู‘ููŠูŽุงู†ู ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ู’ูŠูŽู…ููŠู†ู ูˆูŽุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ุดู‘ูู…ูŽุงู„ู ู‚ูŽุนููŠุฏูŒ – ู…ู‘ูŽุง ูŠูŽู„ู’ููุธู ู…ูู† ู‚ูŽูˆู’ู„ู ุฅูู„ุงู‘ูŽ ู„ูŽุฏูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ุฑูŽู‚ููŠุจูŒ ุนูŽุชููŠุฏูŒ

((Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive, one sitting on the right and one on the left. Not a word does he utter, but there is a watcher by him, ready.) 50:17-18. Allah’s statement,

ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ุฅูุฐูŽุง ุฌูŽุขุกูŽ ุฃูŽุญูŽุฏูŽูƒูู…ู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูˆู’ุชู

(until when death approaches one of you…) refers to, when one’s life span comes to an end and he is dying,

ุชูŽูˆูŽูู‘ูŽุชู’ู‡ู ุฑูุณูู„ูู†ูŽุง

(Our messengers take his soul…) meaning, there are angels who are responsible for this job. Ibn `Abbas and several others said that the Angel of Death has angels who pull the soul from its body and when it reaches the throat, the Angel of Death captures it. Allah said;

ูˆูŽู‡ูู…ู’ ู„ุงูŽ ูŠูููŽุฑู‘ูุทููˆู†ูŽ

(and they never neglect their duty.) They guard the soul of the dead person and take it to wherever Allah wills, to `Illiyyin if he was among the righteous, and to Sijjin if he was among the wicked (disbelievers, sinners, etc.), we seek refuge with Allah from this end. Allah said next,

ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ุฑูุฏู‘ููˆุงู’ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู…ูŽูˆู’ู„ูŽู€ู‡ูู…ู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู‚ู‘ู

(Then they are returned to Allah, their Master, the Just Lord.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

ยซุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽูŠู‘ูุชูŽ ุชูŽุญู’ุถูุฑูู‡ู ุงู„ู’ู…ูŽู„ูŽุงุฆููƒูŽุฉู ููŽุฅูุฐูŽุง ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุฌูู„ู ุงู„ุตู‘ูŽุงู„ูุญูุŒ ู‚ูŽุงู„ููˆุง: ุงุฎู’ุฑูุฌููŠ ุฃูŽูŠู‘ูŽุชูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽูู’ุณู ุงู„ุทู‘ูŽูŠู‘ูุจูŽุฉู ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽุณูŽุฏู ุงู„ุทู‘ูŽูŠู‘ูุจูุŒุงุฎู’ุฑูุฌููŠ ุญูŽู…ููŠุฏูŽุฉู‹ุŒ ูˆูŽุฃูŽุจู’ุดูุฑููŠ ุจูุฑูŽูˆู’ุญู ูˆูŽุฑูŽูŠู’ุญูŽุงู†ูุŒ ูˆูŽุฑูŽุจูŽ ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑู ุบูŽุถู’ุจูŽุงู†ูŽุŒ ููŽู„ูŽุง ุชูŽุฒูŽุงู„ู ูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู ู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ุชูŽุฎู’ุฑูุฌูŽุŒ ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ูŠูุนู’ุฑูŽุฌูŽ ุจูู‡ูŽุง ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽุงุกูุŒ ููŽูŠูŽุณู’ุชูŽูู’ุชูŽุญู ู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู ู…ูŽู†ู’ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุงุŸ ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู: ููู„ูŽุงู†ูŒุŒ ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ: ู…ูŽุฑู’ุญุจู‹ุง ุจูุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽูู’ุณู ุงู„ุทู‘ูŽูŠู‘ูุจูŽุฉูุŒ ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽุณูŽุฏู ุงู„ุทู‘ูŽูŠู‘ูุจูุŒ ุงุฏู’ุฎูู„ูŠ ุญูŽู…ููŠุฏูŽุฉู‹ ูˆูŽุฃูŽุจู’ุดูุฑููŠ ุจูุฑูŽูˆู’ุญู ูˆูŽุฑูŽูŠู’ุญูŽุงู†ู ูˆูŽุฑูŽุจูŽ ุบูŽูŠู’ุฑู ุบูŽุถู’ุจูŽุงู†ูŽุŒ ููŽู„ูŽุง ุชูŽุฒูŽุงู„ู ูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู ู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ูŠูู†ู’ุชูŽู‡ูŽู‰ ุจูู‡ูŽุง ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽุงุกู ุงู„ู‘ูŽุชููŠ ูููŠู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู„ู‡ู ุนูŽุฒู‘ูŽ ูˆูŽุฌูŽู„ู‘ูŽุŒ ูˆูŽุฅูุฐูŽุง ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽ ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุฌูู„ู ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽูˆู’ุกูุŒ ู‚ูŽุงู„ููˆุง: ุงุฎู’ุฑูุฌููŠ ุฃูŽูŠู‘ูŽุชูู‡ูŽุง ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽูู’ุณู ุงู„ู’ุฎูŽุจููŠุซูŽุฉู ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽุณูŽุฏู ุงู„ู’ุฎูŽุจููŠุซูุŒ ุงุฎู’ุฑูุฌููŠ ุฐูŽู…ููŠู…ูŽุฉู‹ ูˆูŽุฃูŽุจู’ุดูุฑูŠ ุจูุญูŽู…ููŠู…ู ูˆูŽุบูŽุณู‘ูŽุงู‚ูุŒ ูˆูŽุขุฎูŽุฑูŽ ู…ูู†ู’ ุดูŽูƒู’ู„ูู‡ู ุฃูŽุฒู’ูˆูŽุงุฌุŒ ููŽู„ูŽุง ุชูŽุฒูŽุงู„ู ูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู ู„ูŽู‡ูŽุง ุฐูŽู„ููƒูŽ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ุชูŽุฎู’ุฑูุฌูŽุŒ ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ูŠูุนู’ุฑูŽุฌูŽ ุจูู‡ูŽุง ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽุงุกูุŒ ููŽูŠูุณู’ุชูŽูู’ุชูŽุญู ู„ูŽู‡ู‹ุง ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู: ู…ูŽู†ู’ ู‡ูŽุฐูŽุงุŸ ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู: ููู„ูŽุงู†ูŒุŒ ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู: ู„ูŽุง ู…ูŽุฑู’ุญูŽุจู‹ุง ุจูุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽูู’ุณู ุงู„ู’ุฎูŽุจููŠุซูŽุฉู ูƒูŽุงู†ูŽุชู’ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุฌูŽุณูŽุฏู ุงู„ู’ุฎูŽุจููŠุซูุŒ ุงุฑู’ุฌูุนููŠ ุฐูŽู…ููŠู…ูŽุฉู‹ุŒ ููŽุฅูู†ู‘ูŽู‡ู ู„ูŽุง ูŠููู’ุชูŽุญู ู„ูŽูƒูŽ ุฃูŽุจู’ูˆูŽุงุจู ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽุงุกูุŒ ููŽุชูุฑู’ุณูŽู„ู ู…ูู†ูŽ ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽู…ูŽุงุกู ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ุชูŽุตููŠุฑู ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู’ู‚ูŽุจู’ุฑูุŒ ููŽูŠูุฌู’ู„ูŽุณู ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุฌูู„ู ุงู„ุตู‘ูŽุงู„ูุญูุŒ ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู ู„ูŽู‡ู ู…ูุซู’ู„ู ู…ูŽุง ู‚ููŠู„ูŽ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุฏููŠุซู ุงู„ุฃูŽูˆู‘ูŽู„ูุŒ ูˆูŽูŠูุฌู’ู„ูŽุณู ุงู„ุฑู‘ูŽุฌูู„ู ุงู„ุณู‘ูŽูˆู’ุกู ููŽูŠูู‚ูŽุงู„ู ู„ูŽู‡ู ู…ูุซู’ู„ู ู…ูŽุง ู‚ููŠู„ูŽ ูููŠ ุงู„ู’ุญูŽุฏููŠุซู ุงู„ุซู‘ูŽุงู†ููŠยป

(The angels attend the dying person. If he is a righteous person, the angels will say, `O pure soul from a pure body! Come out with honor and receive the good news of rest, satisfaction and a Lord Who is not angry.’ The angels will keep saying this until the soul leaves its body, and they will then raise it up to heaven and will ask that the door be opened for the soul and it will be asked, `Who is this’ It will be said, `(The soul of) so-and-so.’ It will be said, `Welcome, to the pure soul that inhabited the pure body. Enter with honor and receive the good news of rest, satisfaction and a Lord Who is not angry.’ This statement will be repeated until the soul reaches the heaven above which there is Allah. If the dying person is evil, the angels will say, `Get out (of your body), O wicked soul from a wicked body! Get out in disgrace and receive the news of boiling fluid, a fluid dark, murky, intensely cold and other (torments) of similar kind – all together – to match them.’ This statement will be said repeatedly until the evil soul leaves its body. The soul will be raised up to heaven and a request will be made that the door be opened for it. It will be asked, `Who is this’ It will be said, `(The soul of) so and so.’ It will be said, `No welcome to the wicked soul from the wicked body. Return with disgrace, for the doors of heaven will not be opened for you.’ So it will be thrown from heaven until it returns to the grave. So the righteous person sits and similar is said to him as before. And the evil person sits and similar is said to him as before.) It is also possible that the meaning of,

ุซูู…ู‘ูŽ ุฑูุฏู‘ููˆุงู’

(Then they are returned…) refers to the return of all creation to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, when He will subject them to His just decision. Allah said in other Ayat,

ู‚ูู„ู’ ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ุงู‘ูŒูˆู‘ูŽู„ููŠู†ูŽ ูˆูŽุงู„ุงู‘ูŒุฎูุฑููŠู†ูŽ – ู„ูŽู…ูŽุฌู’ู…ููˆุนููˆู†ูŽ ุฅูู„ูŽู‰ ู…ููŠู‚ูŽู€ุชู ูŠูŽูˆู’ู…ู ู…ู‘ูŽุนู’ู„ููˆู…ู

(Say: “(Yes) verily, those of old, and those of later times. All will surely be gathered together for an appointed meeting of a known Day.”) 56:49-50 and,

ูˆูŽุญูŽุดูŽุฑู’ู†ูŽู€ู‡ูู…ู’ ููŽู„ูŽู…ู’ ู†ูุบูŽุงุฏูุฑู’ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุฃูŽุญูŽุฏุงู‹

(And We shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind…) 18:47 until,

ูˆูŽู„ุงูŽ ูŠูŽุธู’ู„ูู…ู ุฑูŽุจู‘ููƒูŽ ุฃูŽุญูŽุฏู‹ุง

(And your Lord treats no one with injustice.) 18:49 Allah said here,

ู…ูŽูˆู’ู„ูŽู€ู‡ูู…ู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู‚ู‘ู ุฃูŽู„ุงูŽ ู„ูŽู‡ู ุงู„ู’ุญููƒู’ู…ู ูˆูŽู‡ููˆูŽ ุฃูŽุณู’ุฑูŽุนู ุงู„ู’ุญูŽู€ุณูุจููŠู†ูŽ

(their Master, the Just Lord. Surely, His is the judgement and He is the swiftest in taking account.) 6:62

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